1. How does a battery work?
A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The main components are: the anode ("-" side), the cathode ("+" side) and the chemical substance that reacts with them, called electrolyte. The chemical reaction takes place when the terminals are connected to a load that needs electricity. First reaction caused by discharge process is between the anode and electrolyte. The electrons march from the anode, through the outer circuit, to the cathode, supplying this way the consumer with electrons (electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductive path, like a cable). This process is repeating continuously, until the electrolyte is completely transformed. When recharging the battery, the electrochemical conversion happens in reverse.
2. What is a lead-acid battery?
A lead-acid battery refers to it's composition. The anodes and cathodes are represented by lead plates or grids, emerged in sulphuric acid solution, which represents the electrolyte. The positive lead plates are connected between them, the negative ones as well. A group of positive and negative plates form a cell. Usually, it produces 2,11 volts. Therefore, a 6V battery will contain 3 interconnected cells, a 12V battery will contain 6 interconnected cells, and so on.
3. What is an AGM battery?
AGM is the abbreviation for 'Absorbed Glass Mat'. The lead plates are separated by an ultrathin fiberglass mat divider (Absorbed Glass Mat), which is saturated with battery acid (electrolyte) to about 90-95% of what it can hold. One of the advantages of this type of technology is the possibility of mounting the battery in any required position, not just upright, maybe in extreme angles, unlike the regular flooded batteries. Also, the AGM separator favors a high tolerance at vibrations.
4. What is the lifetime for AGM battery?
The estimated average life is around 300 full cycles (charge / discharge) at 100% discharging's.
5. When should I use an AGM battery?
Thanks to it's low internal resistance, AGM batteries allow faster charging's and discharging's. This technology is suitable for short-time delivery of very high currents. AGM batteries are recommended to applications such: UPS (uninterruptible power supply), security systems, communication systems, medical equipment's, emergency lighting, electronic scales, sensors, renewable energy (deep cycle version).
6. What High Rate means?
High Rate is an AGM range for heavy duty equipment's, when a higher rate of discharge is required. This type of batteries offers 30% more power than usual AGM. GEL series don't offer this range.
7. What is a GEL battery?
A GEL battery refers to the electrolyte type. The sulphuric acid is mixed with fumed silica, which makes the resulting mass looking like gel. This kind of battery can be positioned in any orientation, just like AGM.
8. What is the lifetime for GEL battery?
The estimated average life is around 500 full cycles (charge / discharge) at 100% dischargings.
9. When should I use a GEL battery?
GEL batteries are proper to applications with deep slow discharging's, such as: renewable energy, marine equipment's, CATV, wheelchairs, cleaning machines, scooters, golf cars.
10. What is a Deep Cycle?
Deep Cycle batteries are designed for regulated deep discharging's. Every time a battery charges and discharges, the internal lead grids are eroding. Deep Cycle batteries have thicker lead grids, supplying this way high resistance at corrosion, caused by the multiple cycles of charging and discharging.
Both, AGM and GEL technologies, offers Deep Cycle range.
11. What does VRLA, SLA and MF stand for?
Lead batteries can be found under several names, like VRLA, SLA or MF.
VRLA stands for 'Valve Regulated Lead Acid'. These valves are usually on the top of the battery, with an important part in gases exhaust. When charging and discharging the battery, the water from electrolyte (H2SO4) is decomposed, generating gases. In VRLA batteries, the gases are retained as long as possible. If the pressure exceeds the limits, the safety valves will open in order to allow the excess gases to escape.
SLA is the short form for 'Sealed Lead Acid' and it refers to the case property of being sealed, hermetic.
MF means 'Maintenance Free'. These types of batteries are not designed to be opened and refilled.
The use of water is not required.
All AGM and GEL batteries from TED series are VRLA, SLA and MF in the same time.
12. What is "cycle use" and "standby use"?
"Cycle use" and "standby use" are two types of battery usage. You should know your consumer's type, in order to give a proper charging to your battery.
"Cycle Use" refers to direct power source, for applications such as power tools, portable electronic devices, motorbikes, vacuum cleaners. When you constantly discharge the battery, it means you are using it in a cyclic manner. The recommended charging voltage is between 14,4V - 14,8V.
"Standby Use" refers to backup or emergency power. Best examples are: security alarms, UPS or emergency lighting. The battery is in standby mode, meaning when a sudden power outage step in, the battery starts providing the necessary electricity. Because all backup equipment's gives a permanent, constant charging of the battery, the recommended charging voltage is between 13,5V - 13,8V.
13. What are the concerns when using TED range in a parallel or serial configuration?
Don't use mixed brands, models and batches.
Batteries should never be discharged separately, and charged together.
When used in parallel, high differences in charging voltage must be avoided. Do not charge and discharge in these conditions.
14. What Ampere represents?
Unit for measuring the electron flow, or current, through a circuit.
15. What is the internal resistance?
The internal resistance of a battery (IR) can be described as the opposition to the flow of current within the battery. The IR can be classified in two components: the electrical resistance (expressed in Ohms), which represents the opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit and the ionic resistance, representing opposition to current flow due to internal factors such as electrode surface area and electrolyte conductivity.
16. How can I test my battery?
A battery's performance is given by multiple factors: voltage, internal resistance and capacity. A voltmeter is not a useful tool to judge the degree of life left in a battery. Only professional battery testers, which detects internal resistance are suggested. The normal values of IR can be found in each battery's data sheet.
17. How are your batteries rated?
TED batteries are rated based on a capacity given in 20 hours.
18. Before recharging my lead acid battery, should I completely discharge it?
No, a complete discharge can harm the battery. Don't discharge it below 80% of it's capacity or below 10,5V.
19. Do TED lead acid batteries have any type of memory?
No, TED batteries don't develop any type of memory. This kind of effect is encountered at Ni-Cd batteries, which gradually lose their maximum energy capacity if they are repeatedly recharged after being only partially discharged. Ni-Cd batteries appear to "remember" the smaller capacity.
20. How long should the battery last?
TED range is designed for 6 years floating life at 20 Celsius degrees.